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 Description of components of nutmeg

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المحتوى
مُساهمةموضوع: Description of components of nutmeg   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 10:49 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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هنا هكتب المعلومات اللي لقيتها عن
Description of components of nutmeg

المصدر : اللي هيتكتب في الreference
http://www.fao.org/docrep/v4084e/v4084e04.htm


في الردود للموضوع ده ، هنزل تلخيص كل جزئية عن
Description of components of nutmeg
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Description of components of nutmeg   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 11:00 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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The nutmeg seed is one of four c components of the fruit obtained from the nutmeg tree, Myristica frangans Houtt (Myristicaceae)

About 30-55% of the seed consists of oils and 45-60% consists of solid matter including cellulose materials.

There are two types of oils:
(1) The "essential oil of nutmeg" also called the "volatile oil":
accounts for 5-15% of the nutmeg seed
(2) the "fixed oil of nutmeg" sometimes called "nutmeg butter" or expressed oil of nutmeg
accounts for 24-40% of the nutmeg seed.

The relative percentages of the different components will vary depending on the geographical origin of the nutmeg.

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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مُساهمةموضوع: Essential Oil   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 11:11 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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present in lesser amounts than the fixed oil

the essential oil contains the greater number of individual compounds or components, most of which are valuable in industries.

the psychotropic effects of nutmeg as well as most of its other pharmacological properties have been attributed to the compounds found in the essential oil






كيفية الفصل:

The essential oil is obtained from the nutmeg by steam distillation.

الخصائص
It is a colourless or pale yellow liquid with a taste and odour of nutmeg.

This oil is soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water

and has a density, at 25°C of 0.859-0.924.

Since it is light and air sensitive, it must be kept cool in a tightly closed container and protected from light
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مُساهمةموضوع: Components of the Essential Oil   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 11:22 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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Around the 1960's, many compounds were identified by using modern techniques like gas-liquid chromatography.

the major components of the essential oil and their relative percentages is provided below. Note that either sabinene or camphene comprise about 50% of the essential oil:

1. Sabinene
(50%)
or

2. Camphene
(50)%

3. d-Pinene
20%

4. Dipentene
8%

5. d-Linalool
6%

6. d-Borneol
6%

7. i-Terpineol
6%

8. Geraniol
6%

9. Myristcin
4%

10. Safrole
0.6%

11. Eugenol
2%

12. iso Eugenol
2%



In addition, a thorough listing of all the components that have been observed in the essential oil along with their classification based on type is given below:

Aromatic ethers
Methyl Eugenol
Eugenol
Methyl Iso-Eugenol
Myristicin
Methoxy Eugenol
Elemicin
Safrole
Iso-Eugenol
Iso-Elemicin

Terpenes
Alpha-Terpinene
Myrcene
Gamma-Terpinene
Terpinolene
Alpha-Pinene
Camphene
Beta-Pinene
Uinonene (Dipentene)
Alpha-Phellandrene
Sabinene
Beta-Phellandrene
Delta3-Carene
Alpha-Thujene

Monoterpene Alcohol
Geraniol
4-Terpineol
Alpha-Terpineol
Beta-Terpineol
Citronellol
Linalool
Sesquiterpene
Caryophyllene

Terpinic Esters
Geranyl Acetate
Linalyl Acetate
Bornyl acetate

Acids
Formic
Octanoic
Butyric
Acetic
Aromatic hydrocarbons
P-Cymene
Toluene
The following compounds were identified only on the basis of retention times observed from gas chromatography.

Cumene
Cyclamen Aldehyde
Camphor
Menthone
Menthyl Isovalerate

sss
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مُساهمةموضوع: Uses of the Essential Oil   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 11:35 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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Because of its aroma, the essential oil has been used as a natural flavouring extract and as a perfume in the cosmetic industries.

replacing ground nutmeg in order to avoid leaving particles

widespread use in the cosmetic industry when a spicy odour is required. ; Example: flavour in dental creams

in the pharmaceutical industry.
In 1992, Procter and Gamble launched a non-drowsy and alcohol-free Vicks cough syrup and the essential oil of nutmeg is a major ingredient.

Historically, nutmeg has been used as a form of medicine to treat many illnesses ranging from those affecting the nervous system to the digestive system.

Robinson-Health Care in Britain in 1991 also marketed an impregnated tissue called Easy Breather Tissue which helps to clear congestion, and the essential oil of nutmeg was also an active ingredient.
congestion : احتقان

In that same year, Ramedica International Corp. marketed in the USA, a pain relieving ointment called Ramedica Herbal Wonder Balm, and nutmeg oil was again one of the active ingredients.


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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مُساهمةموضوع: Discussion on Some of the Major Components of the Essential Oil   
الأحد مارس 11, 2018 11:43 pm
خالد حربي عبد السلام


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taken from Merck Index, 11th edition and the CRC handbook of Physics and Chemistry.


(i) Sabinene - no information was available on the uses of sabinene

(ii) Camphene and its derivatives are widely used in numerous industrial processes and manufactures. A striking illustration of camphene's industrial importance is shown in the scheme below: Camphene can be easily converted to these other compounds.



Thus, camphene is used in the manufacture of camphor and its related compounds. Camphene and its chloro-derivative have strong antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal properties.

Many of camphene derivatives are known pharmaceutical drugs, and camphene itself has been shown to prevent atheromatosis of the aorta in some animals.


(iii) d-Pinene accounts for 8-20% of the essential oil of nutmeg. This compound is used widely in industry. It is used in the manufacture of camphor (3/4 of US camphor is made from d-pinene), solvents, plasticizers, perfume bases and synthetic pine oil.

(iv) Dipentene is the dl-form of limonene or the inactive limonene. This terpene is used as a solvent and also a wetting and dispersing agent. It is also used in the manufacture of resins.

(v) d-Linalool is also called coriandrol and is used in perfumery substituting for bergamot oil or french.

(vi) d-Borneol exists mostly as an acetate ester in nutmeg rather than the free alcohol. The acetate ester and other ester derivatives of borneol are used in the manufacturing industries. In addition, some free borneol, ie, the alcohol, is used in perfumery and incense making.

(vii) i- Terpineol is used as an antiseptic. It is also used in the making of perfumes and in soap manufacturing.

(viii) Geraniol is used mainly in perfumery because of its sweet rose aroma. Some of its esters such as butyrate is used for making artificial atter of rose.

(ix) Myristicin is the most studied individual compound found in nutmeg, especially its pharmacological properties. This compound is thought to be responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of nutmeg oil.33 However, the evidence is not very clear as to whether other compounds are involved since natural myristicin is more potent than synthetic myristicin.34

(x) Safrole is used industrially in perfumery, and in the manufacturing of heliotropin and in the denaturing of fats in soap manufacture. Medically, it is used as an antiseptic.

(xi) Eugenol is used in the manufacture of vanillin, and in perfumery, instead of oil of cloves.
Eugenol is also used as a dental analgesic.

(xii) iso-eugenol, like eugenol, is used in the manufacture of vanillin.
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Description of components of nutmeg
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